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Color vision refers to the ability of an organism to perceive and differentiate between different colors. In humans, color vision is made possible by specialized cells in the retina called cones, which are sensitive to different wavelengths of light. There are three types of cones, each sensitive to a different range of wavelengths: red, green, and blue.

Color vision is also influenced by genetic factors. Some individuals have color vision deficiencies or color blindness, which can make it difficult to distinguish between certain colors. There are several types of color blindness, but the most common form is red-green color blindness, in which the red and green cones overlap in their sensitivity to certain wavelengths of light.